Bilo SPA



Bilo is located in Dobrudzha, throughout the site there is only one settlement - the village of Bilo (about 100 inhabitants) with declining functions. It is a complex of large blocks of farmland (used mainly for cereals), on most borders of which there are forest shelter belts planted in the 50s of the 20th century. Between some of the blocks there are lowerings in the terrain that are not cultivated.

Birds in the protected area

The area provides suitable habitats for at least 42 bird species, 23 of them are included in Annex 2 of the Biodiversity Act and Annex I of the Birds Directive, as species which need special conservation measures.

The SPA is known to be used by the Saker Falcon as foraging area including during the breeding season. Targeted studies during the period 2008 - 2013 confirmed that the SPA is important migration and stop-over site for the species. Reducing the mortality of juveniles is of importance for the stability of the overall European population and a significant potential for natural restoration of the breeding population of the Saker in North-Eastern Bulgaria.

Bilo is also one of the most important feeding areas for the wintering geese, which roost in the neighboring coastal lakes (Durankulashko and Shablensko). Along with the Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons here in significant numbers winters the globally threatened Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis, spending the daylight time during two months of the year (January and February). Among the numerous flocks of geese are regularly met and the globally threatened Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus and other waterfowl.

The site is located on the second largest migration route in Europe - Via Pontica, where twice a year pass waterfowl, raptors and song birds from their nesting places in Eastern Europe to the wintering sites in Africa.

Threats to the protected area

  • Agricultural activities
    The use of pesticides and chemicals in the SPA and surrounding arable land has direct negative impact on birds, their food base and foraging habitats for the most of the bird species there, incl. Saker Falcon.
  • Disturbance
    Forestry activities in the vicinity of the breeding territories disturb the birds during the breeding season.