The Imperial eagle nests in Central and Eastern Europe and as far as Central Asia.
The easternmost nesting point of the species was established in 1908 in the Daur steppe, at 115° eastern longitude. The current distribution of the species to the east reaches lake Baikal (110° eastern latitude), to the north, at 57° northern latitude in the Kugur forested steppe area, 35° northern latitude to the south, in the island of Cyprus, and in Austria to the west, 16° eastern longitude. A probable expansion of the nesting region to the north has been observed during the past decade, the species being seen nesting in the Kondo-Alim river area, at 59° northern latitude. One pair with a nest from which the juvenile had left, has been registered in 2008 to the north of 60° northern latitude.
The species winters on the Balkan Peninsula, the Arabian Peninsula, in North-Eastern Africa, as far as Tanzania to the south, in South and East Asia, in India, as far as Korea to the east, Japan, Taiwan and, to the south-east, Singapore.
The European population of the species has been estimated at 1,768 – 2,229 pairs (Demerdzhiev et al., 2011), and the global population is 5,200-16,800 pairs (BirdLife International, 2009). The Eastern Imperial eagle is classified as globally vulnerable (BirdLife International, 2012) and endangered at the European level (Tucker, Heath, 1994). It is included in Annex 1 of the Birds Directive, Annex 1 of CITES and Annex 2 of the Bonn and Bern Conventions. At the national level, the species is included in Annex II and Annex III of the Biodiversity Act, and, also, in Bulgaria's Red Data Book (Golemanski 2011).